Science and Scientific Research in Bulgaria

Largely due to the creation of Slavonic alphabet, is the nascence and follow-on development of scientific thinking in Bulgaria. Examples to attest to the aforementioned we can find in the narrative account left to us by Bishop Constantine Preslavski (of Preslav), the history of the Slavic alphabet (About the Slavic Letters, or Apologia of the Slavic Letters) written by Chernorizets Hrabar (an alleged writer’s pseudonym of Simeon I the Great); initial knowledge about the formation of universe is contained in the works of Joan Exarch.

Equally, of a particular scientific and historical value is the first Slavic symposium (or compilation) of legal texts Zakon Soudniy Lyudm, (A Code of Laws or How to Sue People) (8th Century), repositioned later on to the first Russian Kingdom of Kiev (Russia of Kiev). Essays of scholar-like and cognitive nature were translated from Greek sources. By means of the Old Bulgarian literature, achievements of the medieval scholars acquired popularity in other Slavic countries, too. Substantial merits for the development of linguistic culture and scientifically cognitive knowledge in 14th Century have had the Tarnovo School of literature and Patriarch Euthymius of Tarnovo.

The first to scatter away the darkness, which had fallen during the Ottoman rule, was Paissiy of Hilendar who, by completing his Slav-Bulgarian History, set the beginning of Bulgarian historiography. A number of Bulgarian bookmen and scholars, such like Peter Beron, Ivan Selyminski, Marin Drinov, Petko Slaveykov, Gueorgy Rakovski, the brothers Dimitar and Constantine Miladinov, Lyuben Karavelov, Hristo Botev, Nesho Bonchev and many others, have gone along life paths traced out by the milestones of serious achievements in various fields of the human knowledge. In 1869, the Bulgarian society of literature in the Rumanian town of Braila was founded, which developed, in 1911, into the present-day Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Short after the Liberation from Ottoman rule (1878), the newly instituted Sofia University “St Kliment Ohridski” and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences turned into key academic centers of scientific creative activities. Down the years, particularly immense successes have been attained by the scientists of Bulgaria in the studies of Bulgarian language, theory of literature, history and ethnography of the Bulgarian lands, mathematics, social sciences etc., and the name-list of distinguished men of science and scholars is too long to include the brightest among them like: Alexander Theodorov-Balan, Ivan Shishmanov, Benyo Tsonev, Stefan Mladenov, Lyubomir Miletich, Vladimir Gueorgiev, Mikhail Arnaoudov, Vassil Zlatarski, Anastas Ishirkov, Bogdan Filov, Ivan Duichev, Gueorgy Zlatarski, Dimiter Mikhalchev, Venelin Ganev, Stefan Balamezov, Methodiy Popov, Doncho Kostov, Ivan Tsenov, Cyril A. Popov, Nikola Obreshkov, Gueorgy Nadzhakov, Constantine Pashev, Vladimir Markov and many, many others.

Bulgarian scientists cooperate for joint projects with scientists and scientific institutions and organizations from a number of foreign countries. Sofia, Varna and other Bulgarian towns have repeatedly been the host places to organize and receive various international events like international gatherings and symposia, scientific conferences and the like, and will continue to do so. University lecturers and scientists deliver lectures or share results of their research and studies’ achievements at numerous European and American universities and fora.

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